L'archet baroque, sa tenue, sa technique

UN ARCHET DE "BASSE"


vue de l'archet avant ET APRES AVOIR CLIPPé la hausse

UNE HAUSSE QUI SE CLIPPE Les archets avec une hausse vissée sont apparus pendant la deuxième partie du 18éme siècle

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Archet fait par Hans Reiners, Berlin

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BOW HOLDS

La tenue d'archet


MAIN EN-DESSOUS

the hand is under the bow

MAIN AU-DESSUS

the hand is over the bow.

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Violoncellistes importants dans l'évolution du violoncelle, tenue inconnue.

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TENUE AVEC LA MAIN EN-DESOUS


Observation des peintures et documents historiques

ECOSSE

iel gow and his brother (Donald Gow, cellist), by David Allan, circa 1780

Niel gow and his brother (Donald Gow, cellist), by David Allan, circa 1780

HOLLANDE

Village musicians, by Adrian Jansz van Ostade, circa 1645

Village musicians, by Adrian Jansz van Ostade, circa 1645

ROYAUME UNI

Portrait of a gentleman seated playing cello, by Charles Philips, circa 1720

Portrait of a gentleman seated playing cello, by Charles Philips, circa 1720

italIE

Concerto in casa Lazzari by Girolamo Martinelli

Concerto in casa Lazzari by Girolamo Martinelli

vue detaillée


A considérer... 

Dans des pays tels que L'Italie, l'Allemagne, les Pays Bas, la tenue d'archet la plus courante 

pendant l'epoque baroque était avec la main en dessous.
Lecture conseillée:
"Iconographic study of the violoncello and the way it was played up to the year 1800"

"Certain Aspects of baroque music for the violoncello as finally exemplified in the suites for
unaccompanied violoncello by J.S. Bach. (thesis, doctorate, University of South Australia 1983-4)"
by Mark Meryn SMITH

LIRE: "The cello bow held the viol way, once common, but almost forgotten" by Mark Smith  

Read - Page 47

DESCRIPTION

Allgemeine Musikzeitung, 1799, Leipzig

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Translation:


The thumb was laying on the frog of the bow, the second finger was on the stick, and the other 3 fingers were on the bow hair. By the pressure of those fingers, especially the little finger, he increased the tension of his bow .

Description of J.C. Schetky's bow hold

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CELEBRES VIOLONCELLISTE QUI JOUAIENT AVEC LA MAIN SOUS LA HAUSSE

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FERDINANDO III DE MEDICIS

- 1663-1713 -



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ITALIE

Ferdinando III, Patron of the arts
His Villa in Patrolino was a center of music where he held operatic production in a theater built for that purpose. Close to D. Scarlatti, he produced five of his operas. Ferdinando was also in contact with J.F. Handel. Vivaldi dedicated him L'Estro Armonico, a collection of twelve concertos for one, two and four violins.

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FERDINANDO III DE MEDICIS
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Antonio Vandini


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Antonio Vandini

His career:

- Colleague of A. Vivaldi  in 1720
- First violoncellist of the Church of St. Antonio in Padua, concertmaster: Tartini (1721)

- 1726-70: Back to his position of principal cello of the Church of St. Antonio in Padua.
- 1776-78: Back to Bologna his birth town where he taught until his death.

Composition for the violoncello:

  • Concerto in D major

  • Six Sonatas

Charles Burney, Excerpt from: “Music men, and manners in France and Italy 1770”

allemagne

Markus Grauel


German cellist Markus Graüel was born in Eisenach in the first half of the eighteenth century.

He joined the chamber musicians of the Prussian Court in Berlin from 1742 until 1798.

"M. Grauel, a violoncello performer in the king’s band, played a concerto; it was but ordinary music; however, it was well executed, though in the old manner, with the hand under the bow"
Excerpt from "An eighteenth century musical tour in central Europe and the Netherland."(1773)
Charles Burney

Johann Christoph Shetcky


In 1799 the "Allgemeine Musikzeitung" published a long biographical print where his bow hold is described, explaining that his thumb was laying on the frog of the bow, the index finger was alone on the stick, and the other fingers were on the bow hair.

Highlights of his career:

Schetky spent six months in Hamburg in 1761 where he got offered a Stradivarius.

  • 1761-68 Cellist of the court orchestra of Darmstadt
  • 1768-69 Played concerts in Hamburg

He also appeared in concerts in London where he got the patronage of J.C. Bach.

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 tenue d'archet AVEC la main sur la baguette


peintures, documents historiques

angleterre

Excerpt from: A cellist in Handel's orchestra - Philip Mercier - c.1740-1- (Cellist: J. Hebden )

France

Excerpt from Musique de chambre, by Carmontelle - c.1765-70

( Cellist: J.P. Duport) 

Italie

Portrait of Giovanni Battista Cirri by Giacomo Ceruti

Michel Corette - 1741

Methode théorique et pratique pour apprendre en peu de temps de violoncelle dans sa perfection. - 1741

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"On the manner of holding the bow"
by jl DUPORT

jEAN-LOUIS DUPORT

PREMIER VIOLONCELLISTE virtuoso reconnu en italie et en europe

FRANCESCO ALBOREA


"Franciscello", a travelling virtuoso
Born in 1691 in Napoli, Italy.




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His playing and sound had an important impact in the development and the popularity of the violoncello. After a performance with Scarlatti, Geminiani related that only an angel that had descended and assumed his shape could have played like that. Quantz describes him as «the incomparable violoncellist Fransciscello."


Employed at the Imperial chapel of Vienna from 1726 until his death, he received by far the highest salary paid to any violoncellist at the chapel (1260 fl. while the standard salary was between 150 and 500 fl.)  His fame also inspired viola da gamba players to explore the new instrument. The French gamba player Martin Berteau was one of them. After hearing a concert of Alborea, he decided to dedicate the rest of his career to the violoncello.


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observation de la tenue d'archet de Boccherini

"Luigi Boccherini playing the violoncello"
Date: circa 1764-1767
Even if this is post baroque, the hand is still placed at the balance point of the bow

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important cellists - unknown bowhold

GIOVANNI BONONCINI

1670, Modena - 1747, Vienna
Also refered as BUONONCINI

Renowned composer and cellist, Bononcini traveled throughout Europe from his beginnings in Bologna, then to Rome (1691) and Vienna (1698 and 1736 until his death).  By 1706, Bononcini was already famous all over Europe. 
His career includes stays in Madrid, Berlin (1702-03)*London (1720), Paris (1730).



More about Bononcini: clic here 

martin berteau


Berteau was born in 1691 in Valenciennes, France.
overhand? underhand?...

This is the only portrait of Berteau, there is no more information about his bow and bow-hold.

Before becoming a cellist, Berteau was a fine bass viol player. Important figure as a performer teacher and composer, "The famous Bertaud", is considered as the founder of the French school of violoncello. He left no written record of his teaching method, but many of his pupils did. Among them: the Brothers Janson, Jean-Pierre Duport, Jean-Baptiste Bréval, François Cupis de Renoussard, Joseph Tillière, Dominique Bideau. Famous for his use of harmonics, he composed 6 cello sonatas Sonate Da camera a violoncello Solo col Basso Continuo op.l where he wrote an explanation on how to play harmonics on the cello.

Berteau's life (in French)






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This is the only portrait of Berteau, there is no information about his bow-hold.








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A propos du choix de la tenue d'archet


We know that both bow-holds were used for cello/bass playing, it was not the case for other bowed instruments.


la main dessus

Seuls les instruments ou la table est dirigée vers le musicien utilisent une tenue avec la main sur l'archet à l'exception de violoncellistes qui l'utilisent également. 


la main dessous

Tous les instruments dont la table est dirigée vers le sol utilisent une tenue d'archet avec la main en dessous, y compris les violoncellistes.

la tenue d'archet est en rapport avec la maniere dont l'instrument est orienté. 

la paume de la main est tournée vers ou l'impulsion doit etre donnée. 

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THE CELLISTS USED BOTH BOW HOLDs, but WHICH WAY DID THEY CONDUCT IT?

technique d'archet


tirer, pousser,

vers le haut ou vers le bas? 

lire la suite